Cuáles son los diferentes tipos de dolor de cabeza

 

En la gran mayoría de los casos, la cefalea está causada por el estrés, la contractura o la falta de descanso. En un porcentaje menor el dolor de cabeza se debe a una enfermedad o patología.

Todos hemos sufrido de jaqueca o cefalea en algún momento de la vida. Sin embargo, no sabemos que existen diferentes tipos de dolor de cabeza y que cada uno se mejora con un tratamiento particular.

Pueden variar según la intensidad, la frecuencia o el área que afectan. Entérate de más en el siguiente artículo.

¿Por qué sufrimos dolor de cabeza?

En la gran mayoría de los casos, la cefalea está causada por el estrés, la contractura o la falta de descanso. En un porcentaje menor el dolor de cabeza se debe a una enfermedad o patología.

Existen decenas de tipos de jaqueca y cada uno tiene sus síntomas y desencadenantes. Por eso es fundamental encontrar el disparador de la dolencia para luego llevar a cabo un tratamiento correcto.

La sensación de dolor en la cabeza, básicamente, se debe a una lesión en los tejidos y en las células llamadas nociceptores. Estos receptores trabajan captando señales químicas, mecánicas y térmicas para avisar si existen daños en el organismo.

Además hay otras variables para el dolor de cabeza como, por ejemplo, cambios biológicos, emociones o alteraciones en el sistema nervioso.

La sensación final depende de factores internos y de nuestra mente. Por eso algunas personas son más propensas a sufrir cefalea que otras.

La jaqueca, en particular, puede desencadenarse por tensiones musculares, problemas vasculares, trastornos médicos o estrés.

Cefaleas primarias
Aunque la cefalea está clasificada en más de 150 tipos, te contaremos cuáles son las principales y más comunes:

1. Cefalea por tensión

Es la más frecuente de todas en la sociedad actual y está provocada por la tensión muscular, las contracturas o apretar demasiado las mandíbulas al dormir (bruxismo).

El dolor se experimenta a ambos lados de la cabeza y puede ser más leve o más intenso según el tipo de presión que ejerzan los músculos en la nuca.
No suele ser incapacitante, aunque sí muy molesta y puede convertirse en crónica si no se trata.

2. Migraña
Este tipo de dolor de cabeza se debe a la activación de ciertas neuronas en la corteza cerebral.

También puede estar causada por un estrechamiento en los vasos sanguíneos encefálicos. En ese caso ni la sangre ni el oxígeno pueden llegar correctamente al cerebro.
Los síntomas son más intensos que en las cefaleas tensionales y presenta como “pinchazos” o “pulsaciones” en uno o ambos lados de la cabeza.
Dentro de las migrañas podemos diferenciar dos patologías: sin aura (aparecen de forma súbita y son más habituales) y con aura (incluyen síntomas sensoriales, visuales, motores y lingüísticos).

3. Cefalea trigémino-autonómica

El causante de este dolor de cabeza es el nervio trigémino (el cual está encargado de recibir las sensaciones en la cabeza y en el rostro).

Los síntomas son similares a los de la migraña, pero afectan solo a la mitad de la cabeza y el dolor es pulsátil y más intenso.
Se experimenta un dolor incapacitante en la región de los ojos o las sienes y puede incluir lagrimeo, sudoración facial y congestión nasal.

4. Cefalea por esfuerzo físico

Los síntomas no se deben a una causa intracraneal sino, por ejemplo, al ejercicio muy intenso o a un esfuerzo desmedido.

Es más común en verano, en sitios donde hace mucho calor o están a una altitud elevada. El principal síntoma es el dolor pulsátil.

5. Cefalea por crioestímulo
El dolor de cabeza en este caso puede aparecer, por ejemplo, cuando consumimos un helado o una bebida demasiado fría.

También se desarrolla si algún objeto congelado entra en contacto con la cabeza, inhalamos fuerte un día de invierno o nos damos un baño de agua fría.
Esta cefalea es punzante, de corta duración y unilateral.

6. Cefalea hípnica
También conocida como “cefalea despertador” solo aparece durante el sueño, pero hace que la persona deje de dormir de manera inmediata.

Afecta mayormente a mayores de 50 años y es bastante persistente. Puede estar acompañada por náuseas y mareos.

7. Cefalea por actividad sexual
Durante el sexo baja la tensión intracraneal y puede haber pérdida de líquido cefalorraquídeo.

Ambas condiciones provocan dolor punzante a ambos lados de la cabeza acompañado de náuseas, mareos, taquicardia y rubor facial. Puede durar hasta una hora.

Cefaleas secundarias

Las anteriores son experimentadas por un gran porcentaje de la población. Por el contrario, las secundarias son consecuencia de lesiones cerebrales o trastornos vasculares.

Así, pueden requerir un tratamiento específico.

1.Cefalea por traumatismo

Sucede tras un golpe en el cráneo o en las cervicales (por ejemplo, en una caída o un accidente de tránsito). Puede estar asociada a pérdida de memoria, mareos o fatiga.

2. Cefalea por trastorno vascular
Este dolor de cabeza puede ser severo al estar provocado por hemorragia cerebral, ictus isquémico, malformación arteriovenosa congénita o aneurisma.

3. Cefalea por abstinencia
Aquellas personas que están haciendo un tratamiento para dejar de fumar, de beber o de consumir drogas pueden experimentar dolor de cabeza agudo causado por la abstinencia a sustancias químicas poderosas.

4. Cefalea por infección
Aparece si se padece encefalitis bacteriana o vírica, meningitis, infecciones sistémicas o parasitosis. En la mayoría de los casos el dolor de cabeza remite cuando se cura la enfermedad.


Mejor con salud

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